This website is intended for healthcare professionals only
User log in

Trial log in

Short-term complications of type 2 diabetes

This promotional module has been initiated, funded and reviewed by Boehringer Ingelheim. The content of this industry-supported learning activity has been generated by Practice Nurse.


This module is intended to develop the general practice nurse’s understanding of the short-term complications of type 2 diabetes – ‘hypos and hypers’ – and their implications for morbidity and mortality.

The module covers:

  • Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA): definition, diagnosis, causes and management
  • Hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic state (HHS): definition, diagnosis, causes and management
  • Hypoglycaemia (hypos): definition, diagnosis, causes and management
  • Sick day rules


On completion of this module, the general practice nurse will:

  • Be familiar with the causes, signs, symptoms of DKA and HHS
  • Be aware of the significance of DKA in undiagnosed patients, especially children
  • Recognise that DKA and HHS are medical emergencies, which require urgent hospital admission for intensive management
  • Be able to describe the symptoms of hypoglycaemic events, their immediate management, and the minimisation of hypo risk through appropriate prescribing
  • Be able to offer appropriate advice on the prevention of these complications
  • Be familiar with the sick day rules

This module is one of a series of five. Others in the series are:

This resource is provided at an intermediate level. Read the article and answer the self-assessment questions, and reflect on what you have learned.

Complete the resource to obtain a certificate to include in your revalidation portfolio. You should record the time spent on this resource in your CPD log.

Job Code: PC-GB-103942

Date of preparation: March 2021

You can sign up here to receive and manage your electronic communications from Boehringer Ingelheim and its agents acting on its behalf, about BI's products, services and events.

Click here for Trajenta (linagliptin) Prescribing Information: Great Britain | Northern Ireland

Click here for Jardiance (empagliflozin) Prescribing Information: Great Britain | Northern Ireland

Adverse events should be reported. Reporting forms and information can be found at Adverse events should also be reported to Boehringer Ingelheim Drug Safety on 0800 328 1627 (freephone).